Export Impediments [296]

Every country requires official approval before exporters can ship their products abroad. However, requiring many approvals increases the risk of corruption and delays. While the world average is around 11 signatures required for export, countries in Sub-Saharan Africa require nearly double that number, and some require four times as many. In contrast, OECD countries require an average of only about three signatures. “Signatures required for export” is a sub-indicator of the IFC/World Bank’s “Doing Business” ranking (www.doingbusiness.org). On the globe, each check mark represents five signatures required (check marks are sized to fit the available space).